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    工业厂房防爆设计  
     
  摘 要:论述了在工业厂房防爆设计时必须贯彻的方针和采取的技术措施。
  在工业厂房建筑的设计中,不同生产工艺对建筑物有不同的要求。精密仪器仪表的生产厂房要求恒温、恒湿、洁净等;而一些热车间、有粉尘的车间要求有良好的通风和除尘设施;对于化工、医药、石油化工等工业企业的厂房,由于生产过程中有爆炸的危险,因此在厂房设计时,除满足生产工艺要求外,必须认真考虑防止爆炸问题,一旦发生爆炸事故,尽可能使生命财产的损失减少到最小程度。现就工业厂房防爆的设计问题谈一些看法。
  爆炸是在瞬间发生的,人在爆炸的当时是来不及采取任何措施的,因此工业厂房防爆设计应该贯彻“安全第一,预防为主”的方针。设计中一定要严格执行国家现行有关规定、法规,采取有效的防爆措施、合理的抗爆结构,解决处理好泄压设施等。通过技术手段,保障安生生产,防止发生爆炸和燃烧事故。

1 设计中防爆的基本技术措施


  (1)对整个厂区都存在有爆炸危险的工厂(如乳化炸药厂),在整体规划设计时,要根据建筑物内危险品的生产工序、生产品种、生产特征、危险程度等因素,确定建筑物的危险等级后进行分区规划,危险品生产区内的建筑物与其周围村庄、公路、铁路、城镇和本厂生活设施等的距离,都应分别根据建筑物的危险等级和存药量计算后,按规范要求取其最大值。当相互间距离因厂地限制不能满足要求时,要做防护屏障,如采用防护堤、钢筋混凝土墙等形式。对A级建筑物必须设置防护屏障。要根据实际情况,因地制宜,充分利用地形地貌,以达最佳合理布局。
   (2)对于一般工业厂区内有生产和使用爆炸物品的厂房和车间,应尽量集中布置在同一个区域内,与一般厂房、车间的距离要满足安全距离的要求,这样便于对防火墙等防爆建筑结构的统一处理。
  (3)有爆炸危险的车间,应布置在单层厂房内,如因工艺需要厂房为多层时,则应放在最上一层。
  (4)在一般厂房、车间内设有局部防爆房间时,应将此房间尽量靠外墙设置,采用特制的易于向外开启的窗,这样泄压面积容易解决,也便于灭火。
  (5)在厂房中,危险性大的车间和危险性小的车间,同样应该用坚固的防火墙隔开(砖墙或钢筋混凝土墙)。宜在外墙上开门,利用外廊或阳台进行车间相互间的工作联系;或在防火墙上作双门斗,尽量使两个门错开,用门斗来减弱爆炸冲击波的威力,缩小爆炸影响范围。
  (6)对于易产生爆炸的设备,应尽量放在近外墙、靠窗的位置或置于露天,使其破坏力减弱。
  (7)凡不同性质的危险物品的生产、存放应分开设置,如乙炔与氧气必须分开。
  (8)爆炸危险部位,不要设在地下室或半地下室内,因通风不好,发生事故时影响很大,而且不利于疏散和抢救。


2 要设置减压面积


  对有爆炸危险的甲、乙类工业厂房建筑,设置必要的减压面积是爆炸时降低室内压力、避免建筑物结构遭受严重破坏的重要技术措施之一。至于哪一类爆炸混合物,需要用多大的泄压面积是一个值得深入研究的问题。因为影响爆炸威力的因素很多,如介质特性、混合浓度、爆炸地点、厂房容积和形状、温度等均有影响,因此理论上计算得十分准确是不容易的。目前我们主要根据实践经验,并考虑到当前我国建筑结构发展的水平,泄压面积与厂房容积之比一般取0.5~0.1 m2/m3。这个比值对一般爆炸混合物比较适用,如谷物、皮革、铜、锌、合成树脂、煤等粉尘和醋酸蒸气等。但对那种危险性较大的爆炸混合物,上述的比值只适用于浓度超过爆炸下限2.5%及以下的情况,超过更多就有使厂房遭到破坏的危险。
  与砖混结构承重的厂房相比,钢筋混凝土框架结构的厂房有利于扩大厂房侧窗的泄压面积。泄压面积应布置在靠近可能爆炸的部位,不能面对人员集中的地方和交通要道。
  采用轻质屋盖、轻质墙体和门窗等,也是作为泄压面积的一种技术措施。轻质屋盖的泄压效果较好,爆炸后造成的破坏和损失较少。轻质屋盖一般是用石棉瓦、瓦楞铁、复合夹心板等铺在钢檩条上,其自重轻,一般不超过1.2 kN/m2的要求。在车间内部发生爆炸时容易被冲击波冲开、破碎、落下,而对设备破坏的影响不大。但采用石棉瓦、瓦楞铁时,仍存在防寒、隔热等问题。
  易于泄压的门窗、轻质墙体等作为泄压面积时比较容易做到,但要考虑不能影响邻近车间和建筑物的安全,否则定要在窗外设保护挡板,或在墙外留出一块空地设置栏杆,防止伤人。作为泄压面积的门窗一定要向外开,并安装3 mm的普通玻璃。


3 采用钢筋混凝土框架防爆结构


  实践经验及教训证明,框架结构抵抗爆炸破坏的能力较强。所以,有爆炸危险的甲、乙类生产厂房,一般都采用钢筋混凝土框架结构形式和非燃烧体的轻质墙填充的围护结构,这是避免厂房倒塌造成严重损失的有力措施。将厂房围护结构尽量用作泄压面积,这样在厂房内发生一般性的气体混合物的爆炸时,所造成的危害较少,不致影响整个厂房的安全,并能较快地恢复正常生产。相反,承重结构不牢固,虽有一定量的泄压设施,也难免造成人身伤亡、设备损坏、厂房倒塌的后果。尤其是用轻质屋顶作为泄压面积时,如构造处理不当,也有飞起后又整体偏移落下,伤人和砸坏设备的危险。利用墙和门窗作泄压面积时,也要注意对周围人员的防护问题。
  事实证明,采用框架结构,只要节点构造牢固可靠,就能成为良好的抗爆结构,比用砖墙承重的结构好。我们设计的炸药生产厂房,就是采用钢筋混凝土框架结构。当然,也可以采用钢结构厂房。


4 防爆车间设计的一般要求


4.1 地面、内墙面
  散发较空气重的可燃气体或易燃、可燃液体蒸气的甲类生产车间和有粉尘,纤维爆炸危险的乙类生产车间,宜采用不发生火花的地面。为防止火花出现,地面可采用橡胶、塑料、橡胶掺石墨或沥青混凝土等。
  有可能沉积可燃粉尘的车间内墙面,应进行抹灰或油漆,做成容易清洗的(可擦洗涂料)内表面。
4.2 办公室,休息室
  为了人员的安全,在有爆炸危险的甲、乙类生产厂房中,不要设办公室或休息室等辅助房间。必要时这类房间可设在车间外面,与本车间之间用耐火极限不低于3.5 h的非燃烧墙体隔开。
4.3 电气设备
  防爆车间内的电气设备,选用和安装均应根据不同情况采用防爆型的,如防爆开关、防爆电机、防爆灯具等,杜绝选用非防爆型的。
4.4 防雷设施
  在容易引起爆炸的厂房和车间,除在本建筑物上设置避雷装置外,应在其建筑物周围按要求设置独立的避雷针,使该建筑物能够处在整个避雷系统的保护范围内,防止雷击造成的事故。


5 结 语


  工业厂房的防爆设计比较复杂,情况各异,要求高,有一定难度,必须根据不同性质、不同要求的具体情况,严肃认真对待。在设计过程中,要按照有关现行规范、法规和要求的特殊性,精心设计,保证技术上的安全,彻底消除隐患,做到万无一失。

 
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