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    厂房的消防安全设计  
     
 

厂房的消防安全设计
    (一)总平面布置
    对于有爆炸危险的厂房和仓库,应采取集中分区布置。有爆炸危险的生产界区和仓库应尽可能布置在厂区边缘。界区内建筑物、构筑物、露天生产设备相互之间应留有足够的防火间距。界区与界区之间也应留有防火间距。
    按当地全年主导风向,有爆炸危险的厂房和仓库布置在明火或散发火花地点以及其他建筑物的下风向。
    有爆炸危险的厂房和仓库的平面主轴线宜与当地全年主导风向垂直或夹角不小于45度,以利于用自然风力排除可燃气体、可燃蒸气和可燃粉尘。其朝向宜避免朝西,以减少阳光照射,防止室温升高。在山区应布置在迎风山坡一面,并应位于自然通风良好的地方。
    (二)平面和空间布置
    有爆炸危险的厂房在生产工艺允许的条件下宜采用单层建筑。
    有爆炸危险的厂房不得设置在地下或半地下室。
    有爆炸危险的厂房宜采用敞开或半敞开式建筑。
    对有爆炸危险的单层厂房应合理选择平面布置形式,剖面设计要注意通风和利用屋顶泄压。
    有爆炸危险的厂房宜单独设置。如必须与非防爆厂房贴邻时,只能一面贴邻,并在两者之间用防火墙或防爆墙隔开,相邻两厂房之间不应直接有门相通,如必须互相联系时,可利用外廊或阳台通行s也可在中间的防火墙或防爆墙上做双门斗,门斗内的两个门应错开,以减弱爆炸冲击波的影响。
    有爆炸危险的厂房内,不应设置办公室、休息室。如必须贴邻设置时,应采用一二级耐火等级建筑,并应采用耐火极限不低于3h的不燃烧体防护墙隔开和设置直通室外或疏散楼梯的安全出口。
    浸出车间应设有足够的泄压面积,一旦发生爆炸,就可大大减轻爆炸时的破坏程度。有爆炸危险的生产部位,宜靠近泄压面积设置。生产部位的周围还应尽量避开建筑结构的主要承重构件;如布置有困难无法避开时,则应加强主梁或衍架等结构,以避免发生事故时造成建筑物倒塌。不致于因主体结构受破坏而造成人员重大伤亡。
    车间内不得设地沟、地坑。因溶剂蒸气比空气重,泄漏后容易沉积,故施工时开设的地沟、地坑应在施工完成后用细砂填实,并以薄层水泥敷面。
    厂房封水池的设计要求  厂房排出的污水可能带有溶剂或油污,特别是溶剂随污水排出,若遇明火,即会造成火灾危害,外溢的溶剂起火后火势还会顺污水沟逆向窜入车间,酿成更大的危害,因此,厂房应设置水封池。水封池宜靠近车间,便于工人检查,一旦溶剂流出,能及时发现。水封池应是多室结构,至少有三个分离室,保护高度(h)不应小0.4m,使进入水封池的溶剂不至外流或溢出。水封池的水封高度应大于保护高度的2、4倍,容量不应小于车间分水箱容积的1、5倍。同时水流的入口和出口的管道均应是水封闭式。


 厂房防爆电气设备的选型一般应选用隔爆型(d)、增安型(e)、本质安全型(5a或5b)。其它电气器件亦应采用相应的防爆型,活动灯具还需要保护罩。
    厂房电气线路敷设,应避开易受机械损伤、振动、腐蚀以及有危险温度的场所,严禁明敷绝缘导线,应采用镀锌钢管或采用经过消除管道内壁毛刺和管道外壁进行防腐处理的水煤气钢管,钢管内径不应小于电缆外径的1.5倍。电气线路不宜有中间接头,在特殊情况下,线路设中间接头时,必须在相应的防爆型接线盒(分线盒)内连接和分路。电气线路应设有当发生过载、短路、漏电、接地、断线等情况下能自动报警或切断电源的保护装置。
    厂房宜设置独立避雷针,其接地电阻不宜大于100。车间内的金属物和突出屋面的金属物应有防止雷电感应和电磁感应的措施。生产装置中不得使用普通皮带传动,应采用保持良好的润滑的链条或齿轮和能防止静电的皮带转动。灌装溶剂宜采用防静电的软管,如采用普通的非金属软管,应用铜线缠在软管外并接地,导线截面不应小于2、5mm2。装卸溶剂的场地上,应设有为油罐车跨接的防静电接地装置。溶剂罐车在向油罐灌装溶剂时,为防止溶剂大量挥发和产生静电,禁止从高处向容器中冲击喷溅,应将管子插到油罐底部。
    车间设置室内外消防给水按《建规》有关规定执行。车间内宜选用泡沫、干扮和二氧化碳灭火器,其配置数量按《建筑灭火器配置设计规范》确定。静电造成的危害也不容忽视,除了采用必要的接地导除静电手段外,还可以从工艺上采取措施,在用真空(负压)输送溶剂时,一般来讲,电阻率在1011Ω·cm~1015Ω·cm之间的溶剂是容易积聚静电的,而静电电荷在导体表面上的分布同导除的几何形状有密切的关系。电荷密度随表面曲率增大而升高,尤其是尖端部分的电荷密度最大,电场最强,能够产生尖端放电。遇到易燃蒸气与空气的混合正巧达到其爆炸极限时,即会导致火灾、爆炸事故的发生。 因而为限制或减少静电的产生,应适当地控制真空度,根据长期实践,要求操作人员在抽吸溶剂时,真空度应控制在0.04Mpa-0.05Mpa以防流速过快,导致溶剂与管壁摩擦产生静电(甲苯、丙酮等的流速应小于3m/S)。 同时还应严格规定,在抽料时,必须先打开真空阀,才允许把带有负压的吸料管插入盛有溶剂的桶内,这样做是通过人为的手段,将桶内原存在的混合气体先吸入真空泵系统。从而减少混合气体万一达到爆炸极限所造成的危害。 结构形式选择 对于有爆炸危险的厂房和库房,选择好其结构形式,可以在其一旦发生火灾爆炸事故时,十分有效地防止建筑结构发生倒塌破坏,减轻造成的危害和损失。 许多火灾爆炸事故实例表明,适合于用作有爆炸危险厂房和仓库的结构应满足三个条件:一是整体性好、抗爆能力强,能很好地抵御巨大爆炸压力的作用s二是具有较好的耐火能力,能在一定时间内经受火灾爆炸时高温的作用;三是便于设置较大的泄压面积,在发生爆炸事故时能够最大眼度地降低建筑内的爆炸压力,使主体结构免遭破坏。由此可见,钢筋混凝土框架结构,或经过耐火被覆的钢框架结构,用作有爆炸危险厂房和库房的主体结构是最为合适的。此外,钢筋混凝土柱、有耐火被覆钢柱承重的排架结构也可以用作有爆炸危险厂房和库房的主体结构。

 
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