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    地下厂房结构动力分析  
     
 

厂房结构动力分析
回龙抽水蓄能电站水头高(最大水头580m),工况转换频繁,机组额定转速为750r/min,飞逸转速为1 050r/min,比一般抽水蓄能电站转速高(一般机组额定转速500r/min,飞逸转速750r/min);同时,转轮采用中拆方式,削弱了机墩的整体性,降低了机墩的抗振性能。该电站面临着激振频率高(机组转速高)、上部受力(悬式机组)、基础薄弱(机墩开孔)等对抗振及结构设计十分不利的局面。


为此,我们对该电站地下厂房的混凝土结构进行了结构分析,针对不同的结构布置型式和目的要求,先后进行了两个阶段多个模型、多种工况的厂房机组基础整体结构三维有限元动、静力分析,研究了不同板厚、不同边界条件下,厂房整体结构在各种工况组合下的各阶振型、自振频率、各关键支撑基础的刚度等,成功地解决了抽水蓄能电站普遍存在的振动问题,并为对整体结构的振动水平进行评估创造了条件。从总体上掌握了结构受力特点,并据此采取了加大结构刚度的措施:


(1)对厂房蜗壳与外围混凝土的结合型式,采用了充水保压浇筑外围混凝土的新技术。解决了高水头抽水蓄能电站蜗壳的振动问题,并改善了外围混凝土的应力状态。


(2)对电站水轮机蜗壳充水保压值进行优选。通过计算,得出了不同保压值时,机组在各种工况运行时蜗壳外围混凝土及其他混凝土结构的应力、变形、运行性能等结果。经过对计算结果的综合分析,最终确定本电站蜗壳充水加压值为350m。


(3)主机段和安装间发电机层采用厚板结构,两台机组之间不分缝,主厂房与安装间、副厂房连接处设置伸缩缝。


(4)蜗壳机墩结构与上下游边墙连接(增加约束),同时考虑上下游墙与岩壁粘结(利用围岩抗力);


(5)根据动力计算结果,发电机机墩原有尺寸难以满足机墩最小刚度要求,为此将机墩壁厚加大,同时在主厂房端部增加柱子和梁。


(6)提高蜗壳、机墩风罩混凝土强度等级,混凝土强度采用C30。


4.2 温度应力计算


对不同边界条件下整体结构的温度场和温度应力也进行了系统的计算分析,准确给出了温度应力对整体结构的影响,为结构设计工作提供了可靠的依据。通过对回龙抽水蓄能电站蜗壳温度场和温度应力的分析,可以得出以下初步结论:


(1)过去进行蜗壳外围混凝土的应力和配筋计算时,一般只考虑了内水压力和上部设备荷载的作用,而没有考虑温度荷载的影响。计算表明,温度变化在蜗壳外围混凝土中形成的温度应力是比较大的,在进行蜗壳外围混凝土结构设计时,应该考虑温度荷载的影响。


(2)蜗壳外围混凝土中温度应力的大小与温度边界条件和约束边界条件密切相关,一般温差越大和约束越强,那么温度应力也越大。计算表明,蜗壳下游侧7号断面受围岩约束较大,因此在相同温度边界条件下,其温度应力大于蜗壳2号断面的温度应力。


4.3 机墩和风罩结构设计


(1)机墩机构设计


机墩是水轮发电机组的支承结构,承受着巨大的动荷载和静荷载。本电站机墩形式为圆筒式,转轮采用中拆拆卸方式,需要在机墩上开设3.5m×2.5m(宽x高)的运输孔,破坏了机墩的整体性,削弱了机墩的抗振性能。机墩结构计算包括动力计算和静力计算两部分。


从机墩应力计算结果可以看出,机墩铅直向应力基本上为压应力,高程越低,压应力越大;在下机架和定子高程基础板部位,出现较小的应力集中。机墩切向应力大部分数值较小,有拉有压,靠下游侧几个截面一般为拉应力;另外在机墩转轮运输孔顶部,切向应力为拉应力,最大值为0.51MPa,往上逐渐变为压应力。从机墩的铅直向应力和切向应力来看,拉压应力数值都不大,按构造配筋就基本上可以满足结构要求。对机墩应力,除进行三维有限元计算以外,还采用结构力学方法进行了计算。计算结果与有限元结果基本接近,规律性一致。按构造配筋就基本上可以满足结构要求。


(2)风罩结构设计


发电机风罩为一钢筋混凝土薄壁圆筒结构,其底部固结于机墩上,顶部与发电机层楼板整体连接。风罩内力按薄壁圆筒公式进行计算,计算时考虑温度应力的影响。


有限元应力计算结果显示,风罩底部铅直向应力基本上都是压应力。但是,在上机架千斤顶部位,风罩承受径向力,致使千斤顶部位风罩外壁铅直向和切向均为拉应力,内壁均为压应力,最大拉应力值分别为0.56MPa(铅直向)和0.60MPa(切向);而在千斤顶之间部位,风罩内壁为拉应力,外壁为压应力,最大拉应力值分别为0.52MPa(铅直向)和0.34MPa(切向)。与此同时,受千斤顶径向力P4的影响,风罩底部切向应力也呈现出上述分布规律,只是拉应力较小而已。


对风罩应力,除进行三维有限元计算以外,还按《水电站厂房设计规范》(SL266-2001)附录B的方法进行了计算。计算结果与与有限元结果基本接近,规律性一致。按应力计算结果计算配筋量,实配双层钢筋网。


4.4 岩壁吊车梁


岩壁吊车梁是通过长锚杆将钢筋混凝土吊车梁固定在岩壁上的结构,吊车的全部荷载通过锚杆和钢筋混凝土吊车梁与岩石接触面上的摩擦力传到岩体上。岩壁吊车梁计算取纵向单米宽度,按刚体极限平衡计算,不考虑吊车梁纵向的影响。


4.5 尾水管结构设计


尾水管结构由锥管段、弯管段和扩散段三部分组成。尾水管为立式弯肘型,采用钢板焊接而成,由水泵水轮机制造商提供。尾水锥管及肘管厂家提供了20mm厚加劲肋板钢衬,直线尾水管段设计采用18mm/22 mm 厚加劲肋板钢衬(16MnVR),这些钢衬与基岩和外围混凝土的锚固良好。由于尾水管为钢衬受力结构,四周为大体积混凝土,为水管外侧参照已建电站经验配置单层构造钢筋。


4.6 主厂房吊顶设计


主厂房顶拱吊顶采用悬挂式轻型吊顶,为型钢龙骨彩色镀铝锌压型钢板吊顶。吊顶可上人,顶部中央设置一道纵向走道。吊顶分为顶部吸音复合板及单层侧墙立板两部分。吊顶锚杆系统与顶拱支护系统各自成体系。吊顶锚杆共五行八列,且上下游边行两根锚杆之间加密一跟。锚杆直径φ25mm,锚杆长度2.5m。锚杆浆液采用树脂卷。


吊顶主龙骨采用型钢20a冷弯成型。吊顶材料采用彩色镀铝锌压型钢板,其屈服强度为5 600kg/cm2,双面镀铝锌量为150g/m2,采用的镀铝锌合金防腐层为55%铝、43.5%锌和1.5%硅。复合板的底层钢板为白色多孔吸音板,中间夹层依次为玻璃棉及单层铝箔。次檩条采用镀锌高强钢。泛水采用德太泛水。拉杆钢筋直径φ25mm。吊环钢筋直径φ22mm。

 
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