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    钢结构厂房工程监理及质量防治(3)  
     
 

钢结构厂房工程监理及质量防治(3)
5.2 构件拼装偏差:


  (1)产生原因:


  1)构件在运输及堆放时产生变形;


  2)起吊后产生挠曲变形;


  3)安装时的累计误差;


  (4)防治措施:


  1)构件在装车运输过程中要采取有效保护措施,卸车堆放必须垫平整;


  2)对大型构件的起吊位置,要经过计算确认;多台吊机同步作业时,要统一指挥,平稳起吊;


  3)为尽量消除累计误差,构件在拼装时应从中间往两边分,并加强过程量测,发现偏差后,要及时找出原因并调校好;安装过程中如发现偏差过大,千万不能强行校正或随意扩孔,应交设计采取技术补救措施解决。中山市某工地有一单层厂房,在安装钢构梁时发现偏差过大,施工方采取用绞车强拉纠偏,结果造成结构失稳倒塌,好在没有造成人员伤亡。


  5.3 钢柱垂直偏差:


  (1)产生原因:钢柱吊装完成后,柱脚垫块没有及时垫好,或者垫块不平衡;



  (2)防治措施:钢柱吊装完成后,要在柱脚的四个方向及时加塞钢垫块,防止钢柱加荷后失稳变形。当测量校正完成之后,要及时进行二次灌浆,并要确保灌浆质量;


  5.4 屋面及天沟漏水:


  (1)产生原因:搭接收口收边不好,打胶不好;


  (2)防治措施:屋面漏水多发生在屋面板与采光板、通风设备之间的搭接处,故应对上述位置作重点检查。天沟漏水除多发生在搭接位置外,要特别注意屋面板伸人到无沟处的搭接收边,要防止雨水倒流进室内;同时要注意天沟内的排水管帽应使用球型管帽,不宜使用平蓖管帽,以免造成排水不畅;


  5.5 吊车梁摆动


  (1)产生原因:吊车梁弹簧垫片松动,或者固定螺栓松动;


  (2)防治措施:吊车梁的钢板弹簧垫片通常是按图纸要求焊接在牛腿上,焊接质量如何,监理工程师一定要登高检查,确保质量。对于固定螺栓,则应逐个全数检查。


  6 结束语


  钢结构的发展势头迅猛,市场前景乐观,随着钢结构的广泛应用,大型钢结构的技术难度会越来越大,加工、安装精度要求也越来越高,质量问题也会愈来愈受关注。监理工程师应及时掌握新技术、新工艺、新方法,树立良好的质量意识,从大处着眼,小处人手,切实有效地实施工序管理。既做好质量预控工作,也要重视过程控制和成果校核。只有这样,才能很好地控制质量,防止质量事故发生。

 
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