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    工业地产市场和产业链是关键  
     
 

工业地产市场和产业链是关键
目前,随着中国经济的快速发展,越来越多的境外企业来华投资,并且不少企业在中国设置生产基地,工业地产日趋升温。全球第二大上市工业地产集团嘉民集团现身上海,而更早进军中国的全球工业地产老大普洛斯集团已将视线转移到二线城市。


在国内一些城市,为适应发展的需要,工业用地逐渐升级为符合新经济和新型工业化发展的产业需要,不少的住宅地产企业也转型走工业地产路线。包括复地、富力、合生创展在内的大开发商也纷纷抢先进入工业地产领域。


有报告显示,2007年第三季度,北京工业市场各类物业的需求继续保持强劲,延续了2007年前几个季度以来的良好发展势头。市场对物流设施的需求大幅增长,从地域上看,这种需求主要集中在通州区和机场地区。但是,由于以上两个地区优质物流物业的可供量总体比较匮乏,进入市场的新增物流物业很快便被市场吸纳。本地开发商开发出的设计良好、功能完备的物流物业,得到了租赁市场的大力追捧。


那么当前的工业地产呈现着怎样的态势,工业地产未来的走势如何?带着种种问题记者采访了中国城市发展研究院常务副院长章惠生和北京联东投资(集团)有限公司营销总监赵锦明。
 
政府在工业地产方面有怎样的政策?工业地产经历了怎样的过程?其最重要的制约因素是哪几方面?


赵锦明:"招排挂"可以说是对工业地产重大调整,改变了拿地方式。国家对工业地产实行"招排挂"以后,市场更加规范了,同时开发商拿地的成本也提高了。因为工业地产不同于住宅的一次性销售,也不同于商业地产的租赁,其对当地的持续发展,比商业等都具有积极的意义,因而工业地产以租赁为主。另外,值得大家注意的是工业地产投资门槛较高,回报周期长,收益相对稳定,一般在8-10年。


从目前的工业地产形式看,一般有两种情形,一是建设标准厂房,二是建设专业的研发厂房,但目前多数的园区为标准厂房。


其实工业地产源于开发区,经过20多年的发展,不少开发区的实际用地已经匮乏。因此在2004年,国务院就颁布了相关文件,目的是为了节约有效的利用土地,鼓励在开发区内建设标准厂房。但从实际看,早期的工业地产以政府主导为主。如天津的海泰新技术产业园区和始建于上世纪90年代初上海张江高新区。目前工业园的形成,其发展要从两个角度分析,一是丰富和完善当地的产业链,一般工业园区的开发都是以产业链的配套开发为主。工业园会围绕行业的龙头企业去做文章,上下游的配套企业自然会随之而来。这样的话对产业集聚形成了很好的促进作用。二是从专业市场角度分析,开发商会根据专业的市场,如大红门区域。按当前工业园的发展看,脱离当地的产业链和市场的项目是根本没有出路的。工业园的动迁成本很高,而企业进驻的最重要的一个原因就是市场,另外物流也是制约条件之一。因此工业园区和企业的选址一定要从市场、成本、物流、人才等几方面去考虑。


工业园的形成对城市规划有着怎样的影响?


章惠生:就目前而言,不少工业园所引进来的企业一般都是中小型企业。为什么如此,通过分析我们发现,成本和市场决定一切,从市场看大型企业一般不会进驻,它们一般都有自己的产业基地或工厂。从城市发展规划来看,工业园区实际是城市空间的有效补充。当一部分契合实际的工业园区形成后,既能带动当地的经济发展,又能不断地对市场的进行开拓,还能解决就业问题,可以说是一种多赢的方式。因此,城市发展工业园区,必须要从综合角度去考虑。


目前国内工业园区的生存空间是怎样定位是?及其走势?


赵锦明:可以肯定的是,工业地产在未来会更加"专业化",包涵两个方面:一是各个工业园的发展会具体针对某个产业,把该产业的企业集聚一起,形成"势力"。二是当地的产业集群发展很好,那么工业园所面临的问题就是如何升级。随着两个"专业化"的不断推进,整个区域将更有市场竞争力,各个园区和企业也会获的更大市场空间。工业园也会向高端发展,以研发为主或者是以配套型产业基地为主。


而工业园要获得发展还必须考虑三大要素:
 
第一是选址+产业需求+各类配套设施。把这些综合考虑分析是否能支撑项目的开发。


第二是招商,目前国内的大部分工业地产项目都是依靠政府来招商。从经营角度,开发企业会不自觉的把龙头企业作为主要的目标客户,因而培养自己的招商队伍。


第三是服务能力,首先是依托于当地大环境,如在南方不少地方实行的"一站式",另外要针对园区内部的企业,开发商要推出自己的特色服务,如人力资源的服务,帮助进驻企业招聘相关人才如产业工人。另外如金融服务法律服务,打造独特的工业园区物业服务。


工业园区占地的规模多大合适?小型工业园怎样生存?工业园区如何实现互补性招商?


赵锦明:主要是根据当地的产业规模进行判断。就北京而言,操作一个工业园区规模在1000亩地相对比较合适。在日本,其GDP的30%左右大概来源于工业地产政府部门对于工业地产支持应该要下大力气,不仅支持普通企业更要支持高新企业,如金融税率等多方面的政策支持。


章惠生:如发展小规模的园区,那么一定要走专业化的路线,做到小而精。研发是最重要的一个环节。如科技型工业用地,这类工业园区政府应该从研发的角度去考虑,鼓励此类园区的发展,这样就能带动整个产业链,如果只操作密集型的产业园区,只能是解决劳动力的问题。


赵锦明:工业园区的互补性招商应先分析产业链,从龙头企业考虑,在对当某区域的生产企业集聚时,会形成规模有了强大的市场竞争力,所谓不怕"扎堆"。如在宁波某工业园区,都是铸塑机的生产企业,形成了很大的产业规模。如在大连往往以船舶为依托,上下游的各个产业集聚一起。


章惠生:其实讨论了这么多,我们发现工业园的发展也应搞产业化模式,因为当这部分企业形成产业规模之后,其整体竞争力将被放大。邓小平曾讲过,高新技术应当产业化。如何发展高新技术的产业化,其实也是工业地产今后需要考虑方面。


采访后记


工业地产,作为我国房地产业的组成部分,经历了从无到有,从多到精的过程。目前。工业地产已经呈现出勃发的态势,京津唐、长三角、珠三角、东北老工业基地,这些不同的经济带,为工业地产提供了良好的土壤。随着我国经济带的转移,今后会有更多符合国际标准的现代化、环保型工业园区的面市。鉴于工业地产"年轻",我们期待工业地产能从省地、节能、产业化等多角度去发展。

 
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