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    工业地产开发模式  
     
 

工业地产开发模式


根据国内外工业地产开发建设的经验,工业地产开发常见的四种模式有4种,即工业园区开发模式、主体企业引导模式、工业地产商模式和综合运作模式。  


1.工业园区开发模式


工业园区开模式,是目前中国各级地方政府最常使用的工业地产开发模式,同样也是我国目前工业地产市场的主要载体。因为工业园区开发并不属于简单意义上的工业地产开发,而更多的是基于区域经济建设、社会发展、百姓就业等各种综合因素考虑而设置的。各类工业园区作为本地区国内外经济的交汇点,是我国价值链中具备良好的辐射、示范和带动作用的重要环节,是促进区域经济发展的强有力的推动器。


    其主要特性表现为此类工业地产开发都是在政府主导的前提下进行,通过创造相关产业政策支持、税收优惠等条件营造园区与其他工业地产项目所具备的独特优势,然后通过招商引资、土地出让等方式引进符合相关条件的工业发展项目。这类的案例可以参照中国各省市各级政府下所建立的各种各样的大大小小的工业园区项目。



2.主体企业引导模式


主体企业引导模式,一般是指在某个产业领域具有强大的综合实力的企业,为实现企业自身更好的发展与获取更大的利益价值,通过获取大量的工业土地,以营建一个相对独立的工业园区;在自身企业入驻且占主导的前提下,借助企业在产业中的强大的凝聚力与号召力,通过土地出让、项目租售等方式引进其他同类企业的聚集,实现整个产业链的打造及完善。当然很多时候,此类主体企业为所在地政府的引导与支撑从而进行相应地工业地产开发。


    如上海金山的上海石化工业园区,其即为在上海石化龙头企业的带动下,做大做强石化企业,同时进行相关行业延申及细化,进而达到整个产业链的完善与发展,为实现整个金山“大石化战略”发展目标奠定坚实的基础。


3.工业地产商模式


工业地产商模式是指房地产投资开发企业在工业园区内或其他地方获取工业土地项目,在进行项目的道路、绿化等基础设施建设乃至厂房、仓库、研发等房产项目的营建,然后以租赁、转让或合资、合作经营的方式进行项目相关设施的经营、管理,最后获取合利的地产开利润。


    例如普洛斯,全球最大的工业房地产开发商,开发及管理超过140亿美元资产,普洛斯管理总物业面积已超过2700万平方米。普洛斯专注于物流房产租赁服务,在同类的上市公司中,普洛斯的规模为行业第一。


首先,普洛斯公司在取得土地之后,进行一级开发包括基础设施的建设,二级项目以仓储设施为主,采用租赁方式销售,客户对象包括制造商、零售商和物流公司等等。之后,派出专业团队进行二级项目的物业管理和客户维护工作。普洛斯称之为“物流房地产”,即由普洛斯打造一个设施平台,吸引物流企业入驻,普洛斯只作房地产投资开发和物业管理,日常物流业务仍由客户操作,其本质是依旧是房地产开发商。


4.综合运作模式


综合运作模式是指对上述的工业园区开发模式、主体企业引导模式和工业地产商模式进行混合运用的工业地产开发模式。


由于工业地产项目一般具有较大的建设规模和涉及经营范围较广的特点,既要求在土地、税收等政策上的有力支持,也需要在投资方面能跟上开发建设的步伐,还要求具备工业项目的经营运作能力的保证,因此,单纯采用一种开发模式,往往很难达到使工业项目建设能顺利推进的目的,必须对工业园区开发模式、主体企业引导模式、工业地产商模式等进行综合使用。

 
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