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    如何加强厂房的整体刚度  
     
 

如何加强厂房的整体刚度
当用砖作为厂房围护墙时,一般要设置圈梁、连系梁、过梁及基础梁。
圈梁的作用是将墙体同厂房柱箍在一起,以加强厂房的整体刚度,防止由于地基的不均匀沉降或较大振动荷载引起对厂房的不利影响。圈梁设置于墙体内,和柱连接仅起拉结作用。圈梁不承受墙体重量,所以柱上不设置支承圈梁的牛腿。

圈梁的布置与墙体高度、对厂房刚度的要求以及地基情况有关。对于一般单层厂房,可参照下述原则布置:对无桥式吊车的厂房,当墙厚≤240mm,檐高为5~8m时,应在檐口附近布置一道,当檐高大于8m时,宜增设一道;对有桥式吊车或有极大振动设备的厂房,除在檐口或窗顶布置外,尚宜在吊车梁处或墙中适当位置增设一道,当外墙高度大于15m时,还应适当增设。


圈梁应连续设置在墙体的同一平面上,并尽可能沿整个建筑物形成封闭状。当圈梁被门窗洞口切断时,应在洞口上部墙体中设置一道附加圈梁(过梁),其截面尺寸不应小于被切断的圈梁。两者搭接长度的要求可参阅《砌体结构》教材。


连系梁的作用是连系纵向柱列,以增强厂房的纵向刚度并传递风载到纵向柱列。此外,连系梁还承受其上部墙体的重量。连系梁通常是预制的,两端搁置在柱牛腿上,其连接可采用螺栓连接或焊接连接。过梁的作用是承托门窗洞口上部墙体重量。  


在进行厂房结构布置时,应尽可能将圈梁,连系梁和过梁结合起来,以节约材料、简化施工,使一个构件在一般厂房中,能起到两种或三种构件的作用。通常用基础梁来承托围护墙体的重量,而不另做墙基础。基础梁底部距土壤表面应预留lOOmm的空隙,使梁可随柱基础一起沉降。当基础梁下有冻胀性土时,应在梁下铺设一层干砂、碎砖或矿渣等松散材料,并预留50~150mm的空隙,这可防止土壤冻结膨胀时将梁顶裂。基础梁与柱一般不要求连接,将基础梁直接放置在柱基础杯口上或当基础埋置较深时,放置在基础上面的混凝土垫块上,如图2-9所示。施工时,基础梁支承处应座浆。


当厂房不高、地基比较好、柱基础又埋得较浅时,也可不设基础梁而做砖石或混凝土墙基础。连系梁、过梁和基础梁的选用,均可查国标、省标或地区标准图集,如连系梁可查图集G321和CG421,过梁可查图集G322和CG422,基础梁可查图集G320和CG420。


 
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